1. Fitting new information into your present system of knowledge and beliefs is called
D. sensory-motor development.
2. The order of Piaget's stages of cognitive development is
- A. preoperational, sensory-motor, concrete operations, formal operations.
B. concrete operations, preoperational, sensory-motor, formal operations.
C. sensory-motor, preoperational, formal operations, concrete operations.
D. sensory-motor, preoperational, concrete operations, formal operations.
3. Identify key concepts from Piaget's theory.
A. A four-year-old girl insists small people must live in the TV because they are right there behind the glass. Identify her stage of cognitive development and the phenomenon being displayed by this child.
B. A child adept at roller skating goes ice skating for the first time. She keeps trying to stand and move just as she would on roller skates but she falls again and again. According to Piaget, what is necessary for mastery of this new skill?
C. A child threatened to tell his parents when his older brother gave him only one of the three candy bars they were supposed to share. The older child then broke his brother's bar in half and gave him two pieces. This satisfied both children because they each had two pieces. Identify the cognitive stages of these children and the disadvantage that allows the younger child to be cheated.
D. Previously, whenever Johnny banged with a spoon, his mother would put it in a drawer and Johnny would quickly move on to something else. Now that he's eight months old, this isn't working. The child continues to demand the spoon even though he can't see it. Identify the cognitive stage of this child and the change that has taken place.
1. Kohlberg's theory describes
A. moral emotions.
B. moral reasoning.
C. moral behavior
D. moral actions
2. Five people have been asked to explain why stealing is wrong. From the explanations provided, identify the most likely level of moral reasoning.
A. Jim believes stealing is wrong because it hurts the feelings of others.
B. Jane believes stealing is wrong because it is against the law.
C. Joshua believes stealing is wrong because it violates the principle that everyone should work hard to acquire his or her own things.
D. Jennifer believes most stealing is wrong, but in some cases, like saving someone's life, it can be justified.
E. Joe believes stealing is wrong because you could be caught and punished.
3. Deborah decides not to cheat on a test because she is afraid of the consequences if she is caught. However, she decides to sneak into the hospital after visiting hours to see her friend because her friend's needs are more important than the hospital rules. This is an example of which criticism of Kohlberg's theory?
A. Stages 1, 5 and 6 are extremely rare.
B. People's responses reflect verbal abilities more than moral reasoning.
C. Children and college-educated people are favored in this approach.
D. People's reasoning depends on the situation they are reasoning about.